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Panchang Vs Gregorian Calendar

Posted by dimodi on February 9, 2013 at 4:45 AM Comments comments (4)

Shuprabhat Friends!!!

 

Being a part of such a great, jest full, celebrative culture, we are fortunate enough that we don’t run out of chances to merry. Every now and then we glance to see what festival is arriving next as per our Hindu calendar. This is when I just got a question in my mind that why sometimes one tithi (day) is smaller/greater than the Gregorian calendar. A small question, A bit of anxiety, and determined research is all what gave birth to this post.

 

 

The calendar that we follow today is the Gregorian calendar, which was introduced in 1582. This was after it was found that the calendar in use till then, the Julius version, accounted for 365.25 days in a year, when in effect it was 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds, thus slightly lesser than the assumed value. As a result, the equinox was moving steadily ahead in the year, and this was considered unacceptable.

 

As you know, in the current system, we have a leap year once every 4 years to compensate for the extra fraction of time taken by our MOTHER Earth to revolve around the sun.Now, as the Gregorian calendar adds 1 day at the end of 4 years, it is not moving in synchronism with the sun because this is like a fixed step size, and does not vary smoothly taking into account the sun's variation.

 

Comparing the Gregorian with the Hindu Panchang, we see that the Hindu version has a much more scientific relationship. While the former is based on the Solar variation and accounts for the earth's revolution around the sun as 12 months each having 30 days, the latter is based on the moon's revolution around the earth, where each month takes 28 days. To compensate for the loss of days, and extra month, called the Adhik Mas (mas is the word for month), is added every 30 months.

 

The Hindu counting of years generally concurs with the reign of a prominent king. For instance, the current year is the Vikram Samvat 2069, signifying that King Vikramaditya's reign started as many years ago (in 57 BC). There are many such Samvats known, but the Vikram Samvat is what is the most widely accepted and in use currently. The various months in the Vikram Samvat are listed below along with their approximate Gregorian Calendar counterparts:

 

Each of these months in the Hindu calendar (with 28 days) is subdivided into 2 cycles of moon waxing and waning. The 1st half is called the Krishna Paksha (dark period), where the moon wanes till Amavasya (new moon), and the Shukla Paksha (bright period), where the moon waxes till Purnima (full moon). This can be understood from the below image:

 

 

The Hindu calendar in use is a combination of both solar and lunar inferences. The months are based on the moon, while the seasons are governed by the sun. A prominent example of a solar festival is that January 13-14 is celebrated as Pongal (in Tamil Nadu), Sankranti (north India) and Lohri (Punjab). All of these herald the entry of the sun into the Makar rashi, or the northward movement of the sun. Though the date is supposed to be somewhere between December 20th and 23rd, due to earth's tilt, it has kept sliding over years. Don't be surprised if in your future births, you find that Makar Sankranti is being celebrated in May, but that will take 1000s of years to come.

 

 

In fact, in certain temples, it is seen that on Sankranti day, sunlight graces the presiding deity. One of such unique temple is the Sun Temple at Konark. The main pratima (idol) is told by the local people to be floating in the air because of the unique arrangements of the main magnets and other series of magnets. The placement of the temple had been aligned in a way that the first rays of the Sun falling on the coast would pass thru the Nata Mandir and would reflect from the diamond placed at the center of this idol in the Main Sanctum.

 

 

Coming back to tithis, the days are calculated based on the actual longitudinal angular difference between the respective positions of the moon and the sun. Thus, it is common to see that the tithis vary in length, some shorter than our regular 24 hours, some extending beyond, and this leads to certain auspicious days being celebrated across 2 days of our Gregorian Calendar.

Speed Of Light in Vedas

Posted by dimodi on January 17, 2013 at 4:50 PM Comments comments (102)

The most well-known source of light is the Sun, or Surya Dev in Hinduism. Suryadev has been worshiped in India since time immemorial following the traditional way of respecting and worshipping important forms of nature. Suryadev is a part of many festivals, including Pongal or Makar Sankranti, Chattha Puja, etc. The Surya Namaskara is a complete exercise procedure that is part of the daily-morning routine of many Indian homes.

 

It is a well-known fact that light travels at a phenomenal speed of 3 x 10^8 metres/sec. This value is etched into the memory of students in their early years in school and this value of the Speed of Light was established by the experiment conducted by Michelson and Morley, celebrated American Physicists in the 19th Century.

 

But did you know that the first yet the most perfect and exact quantitative estimate of the speed of light is seen in Indian vedic scholar Sayana’s commentary on the Rigveda back in the 14th Century AD. It says sun light travels 2202 Yojanas in a half Nimesa.”

 

The below shloka is part of the Rig Veda:

 

which means

 

“Swift and all beautiful art thou, O Surya (Surya=Sun), maker of the light, Illuming all the radiant realm.”

 

Saint Sayanacharya who was a minister in the court of Bukka of the great Vijayanagar Empire of Karnataka in South India (in early 14th century) after reading the Rig Veda, gave the following comment:

The above translates into:

 

"Also it is to be noted that the Light due to the Sun travels 2202 Yojanas in half a Nimesha"

 

Now for the calculation, Converting the units used in ancient India to those used presently :

 

In the vedas Yojana is a unit of distance and Nimisha is a unit of time.

 

Yojana:-

Yojana is an ancient unit of length. Arthasastra defines it as being equal to 8,000 dhanus, which is equivalent to 9 miles. A nimesa is an ancient unit of time that is equal to 16/75 seconds.

 

Thus 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesa is equal to 185,794 miles per second after conversion. yojana is a yoking or harnessing, that which is yoked or harnessed, a team or vehicle, or a course or path.

 

Yojana is a stage or the distance traversed in one harnessing or without unyoking.1 yojana is said to comprise either 4 or 8 krosha (a cry or shout, or the range of the voice in calling); and 1 krosha (or goruta ~ as far as a cow’s lowing may be heard, or a bull’s roar) may represent either 1000 or 2000 daNDa (a rod or staff).

 

Sound radiates in all directions, so perhaps there is some confusion in regarding a krosha either as the radius of travel in one direction or as the full diameter of travel.

 

Man is the traditional measure of all things, and 1 danda represents 1 pauruSa (a man’s length) which equals 1 dhanvantara (bow-string) or dhanu (bow).1 yojana measures either 4,000 or (more likely) 8,000 dhanus.

 

Assuming that 1 paurusha is 6 ft long, then 1 yojana must represent a distance of about 14.6 km (or about 9 miles, as suggested by Monier-Williams).A full range of self-consistent units was anciently devised from the proportions of man’s own frame, although their exact conversion into modern units is unclear.

 

Nimesha: -

 

Nimesa means shutting the eye or winking, and as a measure of time it is a wink of the eye or a moment.Kautilya’s Arthashastra (c.320 BC) defines 1 nimesha as 1/360,000th of a day and night ~ i.e. 0.24 seconds.

 

2,202 yojanas in half a nimesha.Given that 1 yojana is between 14.6 and 16.4 km, 2,202 yojanas must represent between 32,149 and 36,113 km. Half a nimesha is 0.12 seconds.

 

Sayana thus gives the speed of light as between 267,910 and 300,940 km/sec ~ the currently

accepted value for the speed of light being 299,792 km/sec.

 

Assuming that the true speed of light was actually known to Sayana, who presented 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesha, as a verity; and accepting Kautilya’s value for nimesha; then a perfect yojana would be exactly 16,337.4636 m and a perfect paurusha or danda exactly 2.0422 m in length. And (assuming 108 digits per danda) then 1 angula = 1.89 cm, 1 dhanurgraha = 7.56 cm, 1 dhanurmushti = 15.13 cm, 1 vitasti = 22.69 cm, and 1 hasta (cubit) = 51.05 cm.

 

All discussion of Sayana’s comment has assumed that one yojana is about 14.6 km, and this is based on the western ideal of a 6 ft man. The ancient sacred Egyptian cubit measured 28 angulas or 52.92 cm; and the ancient sacred Babylonian cubit measured 51.03 cm ~ i.e. 27 angulas ~ and this cubit was well known in ancient India. There are 32,000 hasta or cubits in a yojana; and if the Sumerian sacred cubit is assumed, then one yojana is actually 16.33 km.

 

Therefore, 2,202 yojanas measures 35,958 km, and the speed of light is properly calculated to be 299,648 km/sec ~ and western science did not match the precision of Sayana’s estimate until 1907 !

 

It must also be noted that Sayanacharya was only commenting on the Rig Vedic text. It is hence practically inferable that earlier interpretations and findings existed, but might have been lost or could not be passed any further till present time, again pushing the date of discovery of speed of light further backwards on the historical timeline.

 

Thus, our Ancient Vedic Indians had established the Speed of Light much before scientists in other parts of the world ! This again proves the Scientific knowledge of Ancient India. Very Enlightening, isn't it?

Our Glorious Scientists

Posted by dimodi on December 17, 2012 at 4:50 AM Comments comments (0)

In our Endeavour to unleash the science in Hinduism, Now we are going to introduce our own ancestors and their great and rich contribution towards scientific development in India to enable India to reach its Pinnacle….

“The Golden Bird” or “Sone Ki Chidiya”-

Dont Miss this Incredible and most rare Compilation of Facts about these great People.

Do share and Like,Tweet, Google Plus One so that everyone gets to know about these incredible Personalities and their Unparallelable Contribution towards making of World as we see Today.

ARYABHATT (476 CE) MASTER ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN

Born in 476 CE in Kusumpur ( Bihar ), Aryabhatt's intellectual brilliance remapped the boundaries of mathematics and astronomy. In 499 CE, at the age of 23, he wrote a text on astronomy and an unparallel treatise on mathematics called 'Aryabhatiyam.' He formulated the process of calculating the motion of planets and the time of eclipses. Aryabhatt was the first to proclaim that the earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun and is suspended in space - 1000 years before Copernicus published his heliocentric theory. He is also acknowledged for calculating p (Pi) to four decimal places: 3.1416 and the sine table in trigonometry. Centuries later, in 825 CE, the Arab mathematician, Mohammed Ibna Musa credited the value of Pi to the Indians, 'This value has been given by the Hindus.' And above all, his most spectacular contribution was the concept of zero without which modern computer technology would have been non-existent. Aryabhatt was a colossus in the field of mathematics.

BHASKARACHARYA II (1114-1183 CE) GENIUS IN ALGEBRA

Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra, Bhaskaracharya' s work in Algebra, Arithmetic and Geometry catapulted him to fame and immortality. His renowned mathematical works called 'Lilavati' and 'Bijaganita' are considered to be unparalled and a memorial to his profound intelligence. Its translation in several languages of the world bear testimony to its eminence. In his treatise ' Siddhant Shiromani ' he writes on planetary positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques and astronomical equipment. In the ' Surya Siddhant ' he makes a note on the force of gravity: 'Objects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon, and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction.' Bhaskaracharya was the first to discover gravity, 500 years before Sir Isaac Newton . He was the champion among mathematicians of ancient and medieval India . His works fired the imagination of Persian and European scholars, who through research on his works earned fame and popularity.  

ACHARYA KANAD (600 BCE) FOUNDER OF ATOMIC THEORY

As the founder of 'Vaisheshik Darshan'- one of six principal philosophies of India - Acharya Kanad was a genius in philosophy. He is believed to have been born in Prabhas Kshetra near Dwarika in Gujarat . He was the pioneer expounder of realism, law of causation and the atomic theory. He has classified all the objects of creation into nine elements, namely: earth, water, light, wind, ether, time, space, mind and soul. He says, 'Every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules.' His statement ushered in the Atomic Theory for the first time ever in the world, nearly 2500 years before John Dalton . Kanad has also described the dimension and motion of atoms and their chemical reactions with each other... The eminent historian, T.N. Colebrook , has said, 'Compared to the scientists of Europe , Kanad and other Indian scientists were the global masters of this field.'

NAGARJUNA (100 CE) WIZARD OF CHEMICAL SCIENCE

He was an extraordinary wizard of science born in the nondescript village of Baluka in Madhya Pradesh . His dedicated research for twelve years produced maiden discoveries and inventions in the faculties of chemistry and metallurgy. Textual masterpieces like ' Ras Ratnakar ,' 'Rashrudaya' and 'Rasendramangal' are his renowned contributions to the science of chemistry. Where the medieval alchemists of England failed, Nagarjuna had discovered the alchemy of transmuting base metals into gold. As the author of medical books like 'Arogyamanjari' and 'Yogasar,' he also made significant contributions to the field of curative medicine. Because of his profound scholarliness and versatile knowledge, he was appointed as Chancellor of the famous University of Nalanda . Nagarjuna's milestone discoveries impress and astonish the scientists of today.

ACHARYA CHARAK (600 BCE) FATHER OF MEDICINE

Acharya Charak has been crowned as the Father of Medicine. His renowned work, the ' Charak Samhita ', is considered as an encyclopedia of Ayurveda. His principles, diagnosis, and cures retain their potency and truth even after a couple of millennia. When the science of anatomy was confused with different theories in Europe, Acharya Charak revealed through his innate genius and enquiries the facts on human anatomy, embryology, pharmacology, blood circulation and diseases like diabetes, tuberculosis, heart disease, etc. In the ' Charak Samhita ' he has described the medicinal qualities and functions of 100,000 herbal plants. He has emphasized the influence of diet and activity on mind and body. He has proved the correlation of spirituality and physical health contributed greatly to diagnostic and curative sciences. He has also prescribed and ethical charter for medical practitioners two centuries prior to the Hippocratic oath. Through his genius and intuition, Acharya Charak made landmark contributions to Ayurveda. He forever remains etched in the annals of history as one of the greatest and noblest of rishi-scientists.

ACHARYA SUSHRUT (600 BCE) FATHER OF PLASTIC SURGERY

A genius who has been glowingly recognized in the annals of medical science. Born to sage Vishwamitra, Acharya Sudhrut details the first ever surgery procedures in ' Sushrut Samhita ,' a unique encyclopedia of surgery. He is venerated as the father of plastic surgery and the science of anesthesia. When surgery was in its infancy in Europe , Sushrut was performing Rhinoplasty (restoration of a damaged nose) and other challenging operations. In the ' Sushrut Samhita ,' he prescribes treatment for twelve types of fractures and six types of dislocations. His details on human embryology are simply amazing. Sushrut used 125 types of surgical instruments including scalpels, lancets, needles, Cathers and rectal speculums; mostly designed from the jaws of animals and birds. He has also described a number of stitching methods; the use of horse's hair as thread and fibers of bark. In the ' Sushrut Samhita ,' and fibers of bark. In the ' Sushrut Samhita ,' he details 300 types of operations. The ancient Indians were the pioneers in amputation, caesarian and cranial surgeries. Acharya Sushrut was a giant in the arena of medical science.

VARAHAMIHIR (499-587 CE) EMINENT ASTROLOGER AND ASTRONOMERA

Renowned astrologer and astronomer who was honored with a special decoration and status as one of the nine gems in the court of King Vikramaditya in Avanti ( Ujjain ). Varahamihir' s book 'panchsiddhant' holds a prominent place in the realm of astronomy. He notes that the moon and planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due to sunlight. In the ' Bruhad Samhita ' and ' Bruhad Jatak ,' he has revealed his discoveries in the domains of geography, constellation, science, botany and animal science. In his treatise on botanical science, Varamihir presents cures for various diseases afflicting plants and trees. The rishi-scientist survives through his unique contributions to the science of astrology and astronomy.

ACHARYA PATANJALI (200 BCE) FATHER OF YOGA

The Science of Yoga is one of several unique contributions of India to the world. It seeks to discover and realize the ultimate Reality through yogic practices. Acharya Patanjali , the founder, hailed from the district of Gonda (Ganara) in Uttar Pradesh . He prescribed the control of prana (life breath) as the means to control the body, mind and soul. This subsequently rewards one with good health and inner happiness. Acharya Patanjali 's 84 yogic postures effectively enhance the efficiency of the respiratory, circulatory, nervous, digestive and endocrine systems and many other organs of the body. Yoga has eight limbs where Acharya Patanjali shows the attainment of the ultimate bliss of God in samadhi through the disciplines of: yam, niyam, asan, pranayam, pratyahar, dhyan and dharna. The Science of Yoga has gained popularity because of its scientific approach and benefits. Yoga also holds the honored place as one of six philosophies in the Indian philosophical system. Acharya Patanjali will forever be remembered and revered as a pioneer in the science of self-discipline, happiness and self-realization.

ACHARYA BHARADWAJ (800 BCE) PIONEER OF AVIATION TECHNOLOGY

Acharya Bharadwaj had a hermitage in the holy city of Prayag and was an ordent apostle of Ayurveda and mechanical sciences. He authored the ' Yantra Sarvasva ' which includes astonishing and outstanding discoveries in aviation science, space science and flying machines. He has described three categories of flying machines: 1.) One that flies on earth from one place to another. 2.) One that travels from one planet to another. 3.) And One that travels from one universe to another. His designs and descriptions have impressed and amazed aviation engineers of today. His brilliance in aviation technology is further reflected through techniques described by him: 1.) Profound Secret: The technique to make a flying machine invisible through the application of sunlight and wind force. 2.) Living Secret: The technique to make an invisible space machine visible through the application of electrical force. 3.) Secret of Eavesdropping: The technique to listen to a conversation in another plane. 4.) Visual Secrets: The technique to see what's happening inside another plane. Through his innovative and brilliant discoveries, Acharya Bharadwaj has been recognized as the pioneer of aviation technology.

ACHARYA KAPIL (3000 BCE) FATHER OF COSMOLOGY

Celebrated as the founder of Sankhya philosophy, Acharya Kapil is believed to have been born in 3000 BCE to the illustrious sage Kardam and Devhuti. He gifted the world with the Sankhya School of Thought.. His pioneering work threw light on the nature and principles of the ultimate Soul (Purusha), primal matter (Prakruti) and creation. His concept of transformation of energy and profound commentaries on atma, non-atma and the subtle elements of the cosmos places him in an elite class of master achievers - incomparable to the discoveries of other cosmologists. On his assertion that Prakruti, with the inspiration of Purusha, is the mother of cosmic creation and all energies, he contributed a new chapter in the science of cosmology. Because of his extrasensory observations and revelations on the secrets of creation, he is recognized and saluted as the Father of Cosmology. Celebrated as the founder of Sankhya philosophy, Acharya Kapil is believed to have been born in 3000 BCE to the illustrious sage Kardam and Devhuti. He gifted the world with the Sankhya School of Thought.. His pioneering work threw light on the nature and principles of the ultimate Soul (Purusha), primal matter (Prakruti) and creation. His concept of transformation of energy and profound commentaries on atma, non-atma and the subtle elements of the cosmos places him in an elite class of master achievers - incomparable to the discoveries of other cosmologists. On his assertion that Prakruti, with the inspiration of Purusha, is the mother of cosmic creation and all energies, he contributed a new chapter in the science of cosmology. Because of his extrasensory observations and revelations on the secrets of creation, he is recognized and saluted as the Father of Cosmology.

ANCIENT CITY FOUND, IRRADIATED FROM ATOMIC BLAST PROVING ACCOUNTS FROM MAHABHARATA

Posted by dimodi on November 27, 2012 at 3:25 AM Comments comments (0)

SOURCE: -

World Island Review, January 1992

 

As accredited in the book :

We've Never Been Alone: A History of Extraterrestrial Intervention

-By  Paul Von Ward



(Inset :-

1. City Of Jodhpur.

2. Satellite Image of Exact Location of the Site.

3. Satellite Image of the site (Dark Regions shows the impact Region).)

 

Radiation still so intense, the area is highly dangerous.

 

A heavy layer of radioactive ash in Rajasthan, India, covers a three-square mile area, ten miles west of Jodhpur. Scientists are investigating the site, where a housing development was being built.

 

For some time it has been established that there is a very high rate of birth defects and cancer in the area under construction. The levels of radiation there have registered so high on investigators' gauges that the Indian government has now cordoned off the region.

 

Scientists have unearthed an ancient city where evidence shows an atomic blast dating back thousands of years, from 8,000 to 12,000 years, destroyed most of the buildings and probably a half-million people.

 

One researcher estimates that the nuclear bomb used was about the size of the ones dropped on Japan in 1945.

 

The Mahabharata clearly describes a catastrophic blast that rocked the continent.

“Gurkha,

flying a swift and powerful vimana

hurled a single projectile

Charged with all the power of the Universe.

An incandescent column of smoke and flame

As bright as the thousand suns

Rose in all its splendour...

a perpendicular explosion

with its billowing smoke clouds...

...the cloud of smoke

rising after its first explosion

formed into expanding round circles

like the opening of giant parasols...

..it was an unknown weapon,

An iron thunderbolt,

A gigantic messenger of death,

Which reduced to ashes

The entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas.

...The corpses were so burned

As to be unrecognizable.

The hair and nails fell out;

Pottery broke without apparent cause,

And the birds turned white.

After a few hours

All foodstuffs were infected...

...to escape from this fire

The soldiers threw themselves in streams

To wash themselves and their equipment. “

Ancient verses from the Mahabharata: (6500 B.C.?)

 

A HISTORIAN COMMENTS

 

Historian Kisari Mohan Ganguli says that Indian sacred writings are full of such descriptions, which sound like an atomic blast as experienced in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. He says references mention fighting sky chariots and final weapons. An ancient battle is described in the Drona Parva, a section of the Mahabharata. "The passage tells of combat where explosions of final weapons decimate entire armies, causing crowds of warriors with steeds and elephants and weapons to be carried away as if they were dry leaves of trees," says Ganguli.

 

"Instead of mushroom clouds, the writer describes a perpendicular explosion with its billowing smoke clouds as consecutive openings of giant parasols. There are comments about the contamination of food and people's hair falling out."

 

ARCHEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION PROVIDES INFORMATION

 

Archeologist Francis Taylor says that etchings in some nearby temples he has managed to translate suggest that they prayed to be spared from the great light that was coming to lay ruin to the city. "It's so mid-boggling to imagine that some civilization had nuclear technology before we did. The radioactive ash adds credibility to the ancient Indian records that describe atomic warfare."

 

Construction has halted while the five member team conducts the investigation. The foreman of the project is Lee Hundley, who pioneered the investigation after the high level of radiation was discovered.

Ancient Aeronautics in Vedas

Posted by dimodi on October 26, 2012 at 8:10 AM Comments comments (2)

 

The ancient vimanas described in the Vedic and Puranic literature of India are so fabulous in their capabilities and construction, one might, with good reason, wonder if such things were actualities, especially those in particular which seem to savor of daiva (myth). However, good evidence does exist indicating that more modest versions were actually built in ancient times by the aeronautical engineers of India, Mesopotamia, and a few other places. Especially is this true when details of construction, materials used, and theory of operation are given. Propulsion systems are addressed in a deliberately obscure fashion.

 

A manuscript, composed in Sanskrit by King Bhoja in the 11th Century A.D., deals with techniques of warfare, and in particular with certain types of war machines. The work is called Samarangana Sutradhara, or "Battlefield Commander"(sometimes abbreviated "the Samar"), and the whole of chapter XXXI is devoted to the construction and operation of several kinds of aircraft having various methods of propulsion.

 

King Bhoja, who used the Sanskrit term yantra more often than the more familiar vimana, claims his knowledge was based on Hindu manuscripts which were ancient even in his time. Some of the techniques of manufacture described therein have been in use by British and American aircraft companies since World War I, and have been found to be sound aeronautical principles even though described nearly a thousand years earlier in this old Sanskrit work. The Sanskrit term vimana is used only once in the following passages, in spite of the proliferation of the term in some English translations I have seen.

 

In looking over the complete text, it is perfectly clear that several types of aerial machines are being described in some detail. Those described below are limited to the atmosphere; yet some of these machines are said to be capable of flying into the Suryamandala (Solar sphere), and others even of interstellar travel i.e., the Naksatra mandala (stellar sphere). Below is my translation of the 11th century Sanskrit text.

 

If you think the stories, myths, and claims of the ancient Sanskrit chronicles are nothing more than children's fairy tales? After nearly a thousand years of technical development, the two most advanced nations in the modern world combined their efforts to develop a Vertical-Take-Off/Landing vehicle using the so-called "thrust vectoring" technique similar to that utilized a thousand years ago in India.

Science Of Sri Yantra and Golden Ratio

Posted by dimodi on October 15, 2012 at 8:20 AM Comments comments (110)

As I was going through a blog, I read references to the Golden Ratio (1.618), a figure sacred to designers. The Golden Ratio is also known by the number phi, and is otherwise called the Golden mean, Divine Proportion or the Golden section. This ratio can be described from the figure:

Pic 1: -

 

As is seen, the ratio of one of the sides to the other is the same as the ratio of the sum of the sides to the former. This Golden Ratio has prime importance in architectural design, as it lends a very aesthetic appearance to the object. The Pyramids in Egypt have their dimensions in a proportion equal to it. Leonardo da Vinci, the famed inventor and artist, has used the Golden ratio is many of his creations, most famously; the Vitruvian man (brought into limelight through the book "The Da Vinci Code"). Even the ratio of Fibonacci numbers (1,1,2,3,5,8,...) is successively approximate to the Golden ratio.

 

I wanted to find out what relevance the Golden Ratio had to India and Hinduism, and I did find something interesting. Many of you would have come across the Sri Yantra, an object of meditation that finds place in Puja Rooms: -

Pic 2: -

 

Now, Sri Yantras are formed by 9 interlocking isoceles triangles. 4 of them point upwards and represent the female energy Shakti, while the other 5 point downwards, representing the male energy Shiva. These triangles are not ordinarily composed, but have aspects of the Golden Ratio in them. Just as we can have rectangles drawn to the specifications of the Golden Ratio, triangles too can have their properties.

 

Triangles have 3 variates: The base length, the slant length and the height. The angle also plays a major role. What is amazing is that the triangle of the Yantra is a proportionate cross-section of the Giza Pyramid, incorporating both special numbers pi (3.142...) and phi (1.618...) ratio. And the base angle of the triangle in the Yantra is seen to be around 51 degrees, the same value that was attributed to the base of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

 

The standard form of the Sriyantra, with the 9 interwoven triangles, constitutes a total of 43 triangles. Different versions have circles and squares surrounding the triangles, and they are said to form the boundary within which Gods residing in the intersections can stay. The centre of the Yantra has a Bindu (dot), which is the focus of the way you can meditate. You can either start from the inside and move out, or do it vice versa. The former is seen to be a constructive view, while the latter a destructive one.

 

The Sriyantra might look a fairly simple design, but the construction is a highly complex affair. There are innumerous intersections that take place between the lines of the 9 triangles, and these cuts are supposed to be concurrent. Thus, changing the position of any one shape will require adjustments in all the corresponding figures. If the intersection of the lines does not happen at a particular point, the concurrency is lost, and so is the significance. There is a lot for research going on to find out the true meaning of the Sri Yantra. Some consider it the primordial source of life, and there was a finding about how it was a manifestation of the DNA form, etc. also

 

Now, there is another separate reference to the Golden Ratio in connection with Kuber, the God of Wealth. It is said that Lord Kuber's treasure, the most prized collection of wealth in the universe, is hidden inside the mystical Mt.Meru. This is guarded by Nagas, or serpents. Now, Mt.Meru is also the name given to a special triangle formed by the ancient mathematician Pingala, and is called MaatraMeru. And this triangle is today called the Pascal's triangle, which some of you might be familiar with:

Pic 3: -

 

What is of interest (as you will observe in the above figure) is that when you move diagonally upwards starting from the first digit on each line and sum the corresponding digits along each diagonal, you end up getting the numbers of the Fibonacci series, which in-turn are in the Golden ratio. Thus, it can be inferred that our ancient texts give special importance and reverence to this "divine ratio", forming it the basis of how one reaches the treasure of the Gods.

Aryabhatt: Vedic Astronomy

Posted by dimodi on October 12, 2012 at 8:30 AM Comments comments (0)

 

Our curriculum teaches us that theory on planetary motion was propounded by Johannes Kepler, a German Astronomer and Mathematician. This was done as late as the 17th century AD.

 

But as usual, India had an answer to the same question way back in the 5th Century AD. The following Sloka from Aryabhatiyam - Kalakriyapada gives Aryabhatta's version:

 

The meaning of this Sloka is as follows:

 

"The mean planets move on their orbits and the true planets move in eccentric circles. All such planets move with their own motion, anti-clockwise from their apogees and clockwise from their perigees."

 

So it took around 1200 years for the Western "Civilization" to re-discover something that Aryabhatta had stated in the 5th Century! Truly Amazing.

A Day and Night of Brahma: The Evidence from Fossil Records

Posted by dimodi on September 15, 2012 at 5:00 AM Comments comments (0)

The Vedic concept of time, like that of the ancient Egyptians and the Mayans, was cyclical. As per their cosmovision, in addition to the cycles of day and night, and the cycles of the seasons, there exists another cycle of time known as the Yuga Cycle or the Cycle Of Ages.

 

The 'Laws of Manu' inform us that that the Yuga Cycle is of 12,000 years duration, and is comprised of four Yugas or World Ages -- Krita or Satya, Treta, Dwapara and Kali. As humanity moves from the Krita Yuga to the Kali Yuga, the level of virtue and human capabilities, both physical and mental, gradually decrease, and reaches its nadir in the Kali Yuga, the age of darkness, in which we currently find ourselves.

 

However, sometime during the dark ages, the Yuga Cycle duration was artificially inflated to an abnormally high value of 4,320,000 years by introducing a multiplication factor of '360', which was represented as the number of 'human years' which constitutes a 'divine year'. The fallacy of this approach was rectified by the renowned Vedic seer, Swami Yukteswar.

 

In the book (1894), Yukteswar clarified that a Yuga Cycle takes 24,000 years, and is comprised of an ascending Yuga Cycle of 12,000 years when virtue gradually increases (Kali, Dwapara, Treta, Krita) and a descending Yuga Cycle (Krita, Treta, Dwapara, Kali) of another 12,000 years, in which virtue gradually decreases.

 

The interpretation of Swami Yukteswar can be intuitively understood, since everything in nature moves in ascending and descending cycles. We know that the Babylonians, Egyptians, Mayans and the Incans all used a daily time system that comprised of 12 ascending time periods (our AM) and 12 descending time periods (our PM) for a 24 hour day. In the cycle of the seasons too, we can see that the intensity of sunlight gradually increases from winter to summer for a period of roughly 12 lunar hemicycles (i.e. the time taken from New Moon to Full Moon and vice versa), and then decreases from summer to winter for another period of 12 lunar hemicycles.

 

The belief in the Yuga Cycle was widely prevalent in the ancient world. Giorgio de Santillana mentions approximately that believed in the concept of a series of ages, with alternating Dark and Golden Ages, as documented in the book Hamlet’s Mill (1969).

 

The Greeks, Romans, Celts, Hopi Indians -- all have detailed accounts of the World Ages which are surprisingly alike in their descriptions. Interestingly, the complete Yuga Cycle of 24,000 years closely matches the of 25,765 years, which is the time taken by the sun to 'precess' i.e. move backwards, through the 12 zodiac constellations. In recent years, it has been observed that the rate of precession is 'increasing' which means that the duration of the Precessional Year is 'decreasing'. It is possible, therefore, that the current precessional value of 25,765 years is simply a temporary deviation from its 'average' value of 24,000 years, as documented in the ancient Vedic texts.

 

In addition to the Yuga Cycle, the Vedic texts also tell us of another large cycle of time known as a 'Day of Brahma', also referred to as a 'Kalpa' which is equal to a 1000 Mahayugas or Yuga Cycles. The tells us that at the end of a 'Day of Brahma' the physical universe is destroyed and is dissolved into the waters of the Primordial Ocean. This is followed by a 'Night of Brahma' which is of equal duration as the 'Day of Brahma' when no life forms exist. At the end of the 'Night of Brahma', the universe is once again created by Vishnu from unmanifested matter. This phenomenon of cyclic creation and destruction events is also explained by Krishna in the: -

Those who understand the cosmic laws know that the Day of Brahma ends after a thousand yugas and the Night of Brahma ends after a thousand yugas. When the day of Brahma dawns, forms are brought forth from the Unmanifest; when the night of Brahma comes, these forms merge in the Formless again. This multitude of beings is created and destroyed again and again in the succeeding days and nights of Brahma."

-- Chapter 8: Imperishable and Eternal Brahma

 

In order to derive the value of a 'Kalpa' i.e. a 'Day of Brahma' we need to remember that as per the Vedic and Puranic texts, the Yuga Cycle (also known as a Mahayuga), consisting of the four yugas, is considered to be of 12,000 years duration, which is half the duration of the Precessional Year. Therefore, a 'Day of Brahma' lasts for 12,000 X 1000 i.e. 12 million years, which is followed by a 'Night of Brahma' of equal duration.

 

The implications are fascinating: all life forms on the planet earth are extinguished after 12 million years! These life forms then remain in a dormant, unmanifested form for a further 12 million years. And then, at the end of the 'Night of Brahma', new life forms are brought forth by the creative process from manifested matter.

 

Thus, we have a cyclical, 24 million year period of cosmic creation and dissolution, much like the 24,000 year precessional year, and the 24 hours of day and night. The essential similarity between the macrocosm and the microcosm couldn't be any clearer. It is easy to see that the time period between two successive 'cosmic dissolution' events is 24 million years.

 

It occurred to me that if this information is correct, then this cycle of creation and destruction should also be reflected in the fossil records of the planet earth. And amazingly enough, this is exactly what has been revealed by recent paleontological evidence: every 26 million years there is a mass extinction of species on the earth!

 

Consider this: 66 million years ago the dinosaurs were thriving on the earth. However, today we can only find their bones and fossils in natural history museums. What happened to them? Scientists believe that 65 million years ago the earth went through a period a rapid death, called a Mass Extinction. But this episode is not the only mass extinction recorded in the fossil record. There are many more. And in recent years paleontologists have suggested that these mass extinctions occur in a regular cycle.

 

In 1984, paleontologists David Raup and Jack Sepkoski published a paper in the Journal of Geological Society of London (vol 146, pp 7-19), claiming that they had identified a statistical periodicity in extinction rates over the last 250 million years. In his research, Sepkoski prepared a listing of about a quarter of a million species of sea-dwelling creatures, both extinct and current, noting the point in time where they appeared and became extinct.

 

Sepkoski confined the study to marine organisms because the chances of finding fossils are much higher under the sea-bed. To further study extinction periods, Sepkoski decided to concentrate on the last 250 million years of geologic time and to throw out animals whose point of appearance and disappearance were debated. He was left with about 500 of his original 3,500 marine families (250,000 species). Sepkoski put the data through computer analysis and was surprised to find that life forms on earth seemed to disappear drastically exactly every 26.2 million years.

 

 

Fig 1 [ ]: The original extinction data of Raup and Sepkoski. This plot represents the extinction rate (vertical axis) vs. time (horizontal axis). The extinction rate peaks every 26 million years, which are marked by the arrows.

 

While the extinction of the dinosaurs, 65 million years ago, nearly coincides with the date arrived at from the Puranic calculations, there is a slight deviation in the other cases. We should remember that the dates calculated by Sepkoski are approximate, and depend on the sample characteristics and various assumptions inherent in the model. Besides, we know the duration of the 24,000 year Precessional Year is not constant, but appears to fluctuate between 26,000 and 22,000 years. Therefore, it is quite likely that the duration of a cosmic cycle of creation and dissolution also fluctuates between 22 million years and 26 million years, with 'mean' value of 24 million years.

 

The periodicity of these fluctuations need to be understood and considered in order to correctly calculate the previous dates of cosmic destruction. Also, the statement that we are currently in the 'middle' of the current 'Day of Brahma' cannot be taken literally to mean that it has been 6 million years since the previous creation event. It could be slightly more or less than 6 million years.

 

Certain variations of the 26 million year cycle have also been identified by other researchers. In 2005, two scientists of UC Berkeley, Muller and Rohde, reviewed the data investigated by Raup and Sepkoski, and identified a 62 million year cycle of mass extinction, which appears to be a 'multiple' of the 26 million year cycle identified by Sepkoski.

 

However, the 26 million year cycle has been corroborated by a number of detailed analyses carried out by Sepkoski, Rampino, Caldeira and other scientists, which establishes the periodicity of the mass extinction events and also confirms that there must be a single, cyclical underlying cause for these events.

 

It would be fair to conclude, on the basis of the above analysis, that the 24 million year cycle of creation and destruction, comprising of a 'Day of Brahma' and a 'Night of Brahma', is embedded in the fossil records of the planet earth.

Ayurveda / Hinduism, The father of Advanced Surgery.

Posted by dimodi on September 12, 2012 at 7:55 AM Comments comments (1)

 

Courtesy: - An article on India's Ancient Technology:

 

Surgery Technology: -

 

The Origin of the Plastic Surgery??

 

Many people consider Plastic Surgeryas a relatively new specialty, the origin of the plastic surgery had his roots more than 4000 years old in India, back to the Indus River Civilization. The mythico-religious shlokas (hymns) associated with this civilization were compiled in Sanskrit language between 3000 and 1000 B.C. in the form of Vedas, the oldest sacred books of the Hindu religion. This era is referred to as the Vedic period (5000 years B.C) in Indian history during which the four Vedas, namely the Rigveda, the Samaveda, the Yajurveda, and the Atharvaveda were compiled. All the four Vedas are in the form of shlokas(hymns), verses, incantations and rites in Sanskrit language.

‘Sushruta Samhita' is believed to be a part of Atharvaveda.

 

Plastic Surgery – was first performed in India around 2000 BC and then popularized in the Arab world that actually launched it to Europe. The person behind this groundbreaking medical practice in India was Sushruta. He is credited for performing the first rhinoplasty (nose-job) with a unique understanding of the circulation system.

 

Cataract surgery - Cataract surgery was also known to him (Indian physician Sushruta) in 6th century BCE. In India, cataract surgery was performed with a special tool called the Jabamukhi Salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision. The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged. Though this method was successful, Susruta cautioned that cataract surgery should only be performed when absolutely necessary. Greek philosophers and scientists traveled to India where these surgeries were performed by physicians. The removal of cataract by surgery was also introduced into China from India.

 

Stones - The earliest operation for removal of a stone is also given in the Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE). The operation involved exposure and going up through the floor of the bladder.

 

‘Sushruta Samhita'(Sushruta's compendium), which describes the ancient tradition of surgery in Indian medicine is considered as one of the most brilliant gems in Indian medical literature. This treatise contains detailed descriptions of teachings and practices of the great ancient surgeon 'Sushruta' which hasconsiderable surgical knowledge of relevance even today.

 

Because of his seminal and numerous contributions to the science and art of surgery he is also known by the title "Father of Surgery." Much of what is known about this inventive surgeon is contained in a series of volumes he authored, which are collectively known as the Sushruta Samhita in which he describes over 300 surgical procedures and 120 surgical instruments and classifies human surgery in 8 categories. He lived, taught and practiced his art on the banks of the Ganges in the area that corresponds to the present day city of Varanasi in North India.

 

Medicine & Surgery :

 

An artist's impression of an operation being performed in ancient India. In spite of the absence of anesthesia, complex operations were performed. The practice of surgery has been recorded in India around 800 B.C. This need not come as a surprise because surgery (Shastrakarma) is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda the ancient Indian system of medicine. The oldest treatise dealing with surgery is the Shushruta Samahita (Shushruta's compendium). Shusruta who lived in Kasi was one of the many Indian medical practitioners who included Atraya and Charaka. He was one of the first to study the human anatomy. In the Shusruta, Samahita he has described in detail the study of anatomy with the aid of a dead body. Shusruta's forte was rhinoplasty (Plastic surgery) and ophthalmology (ejection of cataracts). Shushruta has described surgery under eight heads Chedya (excision), Lekhya (scarification),Vedhya (puncturing), Esya (exploration), Ahrya (extraction), Vsraya (evacuation) andSivya (Suturing).

 

Yoga is a system of exercise for physical and mental nourishment. The origins of yoga are shrouded in antiquity and mystery. Since Vedic times, thousands of years before, the principles and practice of yoga have crystallized. But, it was only around 200 BC that all the fundamentals of yoga were collected by Patanjali in his treatise, named Yogasutra, that is, Yoga-Aphorisms.

 

In short, Patanjali surmised that through the practice of yoga, the energy latent within the human body may be made live and released, which has a salubrious effect on the body and the mind. Now, in modern times, clinical practices have established that several ailments, including hypertension, clinical depression, amnesia, acidity, can be controlled and managed by yogic practices. The application of yoga in physiotherapy is also gaining recognition.

 

Sushruta has pointed out that haemorrhage can be arrested by apposition of the cut edges with stitches, application of styptic decoctions, by cauterisation with chemicals or heat. That the progress of surgery and its development is closely associated with the great wars of the past is well known. The vrana or injury, says Sushruta, involves breakdown of body-components and may have one or more of the following seats for occurrence, viz., skin, flesh, blood-vessels, sinews, bones, joints, internal organs of chest and abdomen and vital structures. Classically vrana, the wound, is the ultimate explosion of the underlying pathological structure. It is, in Sushruta's words, the sixth stage of a continuous process, which starts with sotha (inflammation). Sushruta says that in the first stage, the ulcer is unclean and hence called a dusta-vrana. By proper management it becomes a clean wound, a suddha-vrana. Then there is an attempt at healing and is called ruhyamana-vrana and when the ulcer is completely healed, it is a rudha-vrana. Sushruta has advocated the use of wine with incense of cannabis for anesthesia. Although the use of henbane and of Sammohini and Sanjivani are reported at a later period, Sushruta was the pioneer of anaesthesia.

 

Sushruta describes eight types of surgical procedures: Excision (chedana) is a procedure whereby a part or whole of the limb is cut off from the parent. Incision (bhedana) is made to achieve effective drainage or exposure of underlying structures to let the content out. Scraping (lekhana) or scooping is carried out to remove a growth or flesh of an ulcer, tartar of teeth, etc. the veins, hydrocele and ascitic fluid in the abdomen are drained by puncturing with special instrument (vyadhana). The sinuses and cavities with foreign bodies are probed (esana) for establishing their size, site, number, shape, position, situation, etc. Sravana (blood-letting)is to be carried out in skin diseases, vidradhis, localised swelling, etc. in case of accidental injuries and in intentional incisions, the lips of the wound are apposed and united by stitching (svana.)

 

To obtain proficiency and acquiring skill and speed in these different types of surgical manipulations, Sushruta had devised various experimental modules for trying each procedure. For example, incision and excision are to be practised on vegetables and leather bags filled with mud of different densities; scraping on hairy skin of animals; puncturing on the vein of dead animals and lotus stalks; probing on moth-eaten wood or bamboo; scarification on wooden planks smeared with beeswax, etc. On the subject of trauma, Sushruta speaks of six varieties of accidental injuries encompassing almost all parts of the body.

 

Sushruta also gives classification of the bones and their reaction to injuries. varieties of dislocation of joints (sandhimukta) and fractures of the shaft (kanda-bhagna) are given systematically. He classifies and gives the details of the six types of dislocations and twelve varieties of fractures. He gives the principles of fracture treatment, viz., traction, manipulation, appositions and stabilization. Sushruta has described the entire orthopaedic surgery, including some measures of rehabilitation, in his work.

 

 

As war was a major cause of injury, the name Salya-tantra for this branch of medical learning is derived from Salya, the arrow of the enemy, which in fights used to be lodged in the body of the soldiers. He emphasizes that removal of foreign bodies is fraught with certain complications if the seat of the Salyabe a marma.

 

Sushruta also discusses certain surgical conditions of ano-rectal region; he has given all the methods of management of both haemorrhoids and fistulae. Different types of incision to remove the fistulous tract as langalaka, ardhalangalaka, sarvabhadra, candraadha (curved) and kharjurapatraka (serrated) are described for adoption according to the type of fistula.

 

Sushruta was well aware of the urinary stones, their varieties; the anatomy of urinary bladder along with its relations is well recorded in the chapter on urinary stones. Varieties of stones, their signs and symptoms, the method of extraction and operative complication are given in detail. Apart from the above, surgery of intestinal obstruction (baddha-gudodara), perforated intestines (chidrodara), accidental injuries to abdomen (assaya-bhinna) in which protrusion of omentum occurs are also described along with their management.

Historical Proof of Hinduism being the Oldest Religion

Posted by dimodi on August 7, 2012 at 6:45 AM Comments comments (0)

 

 

कृपया ध्यान दे कि ये सुरेश चिप्लूनकर जी के ब्लॉग से लेकर एडिट किया गया है, अवम हम इसे आपके सामने केवल एक तथ्य के रुप में रख आरएचई है जिस पर अपनी प्रतिक्रिया व्यक्त करने के लिए आप सब मुकत हैं |

 

हिंदू धर्म के विश्व के सबसे पुरातन पूर्ण विकसित अवम वैज्ञानिक संस्क्रुती होने को ये शाक्श्य सिद्ध करते है.

(भाग…1 से आगे जारी…

 

उन दिनों काबा में प्रतिवर्ष आयोजित होने वाला “ओकाज़” सिर्फ़ एक मेला या आनंदोत्सव नहीं था, बल्कि यह एक मंच था जहाँ विश्व के कोने-कोने से विद्वान आकर समूचे अरब में फ़ैली वैदिक संस्कृति द्वारा उत्पन्न सामाजिक, धार्मिक, राजनैतिक, शैक्षणिक पहलुओं पर खुली चर्चा करते थे। “सायर-उल-ओकुल” का निष्कर्ष है कि इन चर्चाओं और निर्णयों को समूचे अरब जगत में सम्मान और सहमति प्राप्त होती थी। अतः एक प्रकार से मक्का, भारत के वाराणसी की तर्ज पर विद्वानों के बीच अतिमहत्वपूर्ण बहसों के केन्द्र के रूप में उभरा, जहाँ भक्तगण एकत्रित होकरपरम-आध्यात्मिक सुख और आशीर्वाद लेते थे। वाराणसी और मक्का दोनों ही जगहों पर इन चर्चाओं और आध्यात्म का केन्द्र निश्चित रूप से शिव का मन्दिर रहा होगा। यहाँ तक कि आज भी मक्का के काबा मेंप्राचीन शिवलिंग के चिन्हदेखे जा सकते हैं। ऐसा प्रतीत होता है कि काबा में प्रत्येक मुस्लिम जिसकाले पत्थर को छूते और चूमते हैं वह शिवलिंग ही है। हालांकि अरबी परम्पराने अब काबा के शिव मन्दिर की स्थापना के चिन्हों को मिटा दिया है, लेकिन इसकी खोज विक्रमादित्य के उन शिलालेखों से लगाई जा सकती है जिनका उल्लेख “सायर-उल-ओकुल” में है। जैसा कि सभी जानते हैं राजा विक्रमादित्य शिव केपरम भक्त थे, उज्जैन एक समयविक्रमादित्य के शासनकाल में राजधानी रही, जहाँ कि सबसे बड़े शिवलिंग महाकालेश्वर विराजमान हैं। ऐसे में जब विक्रमादित्य का शासनकाल और क्षेत्र अरब देशों तक फ़ैला था, तब क्या मक्का जैसी पवित्र जगह पर उन्होंने शिव का पुरातन मन्दिर स्थापित नहीं किया होगा ?

 

अब हम पश्चिम एशिया और काबा में भारतीय और हिन्दू संस्कारों, संस्कृति से मिलती-जुलती परम्पराओं, प्रतीकों और शैलियों को हम एक के बाद एकदेखते जाते हैं |

 

मक्का शहर से कुछ मील दूर एक साइनबोर्ड पर स्पष्ट उल्लेख है कि “इस इलाके में गैर-मुस्लिमों का आना प्रतिबन्धित है…”। यह काबा के उन दिनों की याद ताज़ा करता है, जब नये-नये आये इस्लाम ने इस इलाके पर अपना कब्जा कर लिया था। इस इलाके में गैर-मुस्लिमों का प्रवेश इसीलिये प्रतिबन्धित किया गया है, ताकि इस कब्जे के निशानों को छिपाया जा सके। जैसे-जैसे इस्लामी श्रद्धालु काबा की ओर बढ़ता है, उस भक्त को अपना सिर मुंडाने और दाढ़ी साफ़ कराने को कहा जाता है। इसके बाद वह सिर्फ़ “बिना सिले हुए दो सफ़ेद कपड़े” लपेट कर ही आगे बढ़ सकता है।जिसमें से एक कमर पर लपेटा जाता है व दूसरा कंधे पर रखा जाता है। यह दोनों ही संस्कार प्राचीन काल से हिन्दू मन्दिरों को स्वच्छ और पवित्र रखने हेतु वैदिक अभ्यास के तरीके हैं, यह मुस्लिम परम्परा में कब से आये, जबकि मुस्लिम परम्परा मेंदाढ़ी साफ़ करने को तो गैर-इस्लामिक बताया गया है? मक्का की मुख्य प्रतीकदरगाह जिसे काबा कहा जाता है, उसे एक बड़े से काले कपड़े से ढँका गया है। यह प्रथा भी “मूल प्रतीक” पर ध्यान न जाने देने के लिये एक छद्म-आवरण के रूप में उन्हीं दिनों से प्रारम्भकी गई होगी, वरना उसे इस तरह काले कपड़े में ढँकने की क्या आवश्यकता है?

 

“इनसाइक्लोपीडिया ब्रिटानिका” के अनुसार काबा में 360 मूर्तियाँ थीं। पारम्परिक अरबी आलेखों में उल्लेख है कि जब एक भीषण तूफ़ान से 360 मूर्तियाँ नष्ट हो गईं, तब भी शनि, चन्द्रमा और एक अन्य मूर्ति को प्रकृति द्वारा खण्डित नहीं किया जा सका। यह दर्शाता है कि काबा में स्थापित उस विशाल शिव मन्दिर के साथ अरब लोगों द्वारा नवग्रह की पूजा की जाती थी। भारत में आज भी नवग्रह पूजा की परम्परा जारी है और इसमें से दो मुख्य ग्रह हैं शनि और चन्द्रमा। भारतीय संस्कृति और परम्परा में भी चन्द्रमा को हमेशा शिव के माथे पर विराजित बताया गया है, और इस बात की पूरी सम्भावना है कि यह चन्द्रमा “काबा” के रास्ते इस्लाम ने, उनके झण्डे में अपनाया हो।

 

काबा से जुड़ी एक और हिन्दू संस्कृति परम्परा है “पवित्र गंगा” की अवधारणा। जैसा कि सभी जानते हैं भारतीय संस्कृति में शिव के साथ गंगा और चन्द्रमा के रिश्ते को कभी अलग नहीं किया जा सकता। जहाँ भी शिव होंगे, पवित्र गंगा की अवधारणा निश्चित ही मौजूदहोती है। काबा के पास भी एकपवित्र झरना पाया जाता है, इसका पानी भी पवित्र माना जाता है, क्योंकि इस्लामिक काल से पहले भी इसे पवित्र (आबे ज़म-ज़म ही माना जाता था। आज भी मुस्लिम श्रद्धालु हज के दौरान इस आबे ज़मज़म को अपने साथ बोतल में भरकर ले जाते हैं। ऐसा क्यों है कि कुम्भ में शामिल होने वाले हिन्दुओं द्वारा गंगाजल को पवित्र मानने और उसे बोतलों में भरकर घरों में ले जाने, तथा इसी प्रकार हज की इस परम्परा में इतनी समानता है? इसके पीछे क्या कारण है।

 

काबा में मुस्लिम श्रद्धालु उस पवित्र जगह की सात बार परिक्रमा करते हैं, दुनिया की किसी भी मस्जिद में “परिक्रमा” की कोई परम्परा नहीं है, ऐसा क्यों? हिन्दू संस्कृति में प्रत्येक मन्दिर में मूर्ति की परिक्रमा करने की परम्परा सदियों पुरानीहै। क्या काबा में यह “परिक्रमा परम्परा” पुरातन शिव मन्दिर होने के काल से चली आ रही है? अन्तर सिर्फ़ इतना है कि मुस्लिम श्रद्धालु ये परिक्रमा उल्टी ओर (Anticlockwise) करते हैं, जबकि हिन्दू भक्त सीधी तरफ़ यानी Clockwise। लेकिन हो सकता है कि यह बारीक सा अन्तर इस्लाम के आगमन के बाद किया गया हो, जिस प्रकार उर्दू भी दांये से बांये लिखी जाती है, उसी तर्ज पर। “सात” परिक्रमाओं की परम्परा संस्कृत में “सप्तपदी” के नाम से जानी जाती है, जो कि हिन्दुओं में पवित्र विवाह के दौरान अग्नि के चारों तरफ़ लिये जाते हैं। “मखा” का मतलब होता है “अग्नि”, और पश्चिम एशिया स्थित “मक्का” में अग्नि के सात फ़ेरे लिया जाना किस संस्कृति की ओर इशारा करता है?

 

यह बात तो पहले से ही स्थापित है और लगभग सभी विद्वान इस पर एकमत हैं कि विश्व की सबसे प्राचीन भाषा पाली, प्राकृत और संस्कृत हैं। कुर-आन का एकपद्य “यजुर्वेद” के एक छन्द का हूबहू अनुवाद है, यह बिन्दु विख्यात इतिहासशोधक पण्डित सातवलेकर ने अपने एक लेख में दर्शाया है। एक और विद्वान ने निम्नलिखित व्याख्या और उसकी शिक्षा को कुरान में और केन उपनिषद के 1.7 श्लोक में एक जैसा पाया है।

 

कुरान में उल्लेख इस प्रकार है -

 

“दृष्टि उसे महसूस नहीं करसकती, लेकिन वह मनुष्य की दृष्टि को महसूस कर सकता है, वह सभी रहस्यों को जानता है और उनसे परिचित है…”

 

केन उपनिषद में इस प्रकार है -

 

“वह” आँखों से नहीं देखा जासकता, लेकिन उसके जरिये आँखें बहुत कुछ देखती हैं, वह भगवान है या कुछ और जिसकी इस प्रकट दुनिया में हम पूजा करते हैं…”

 

इसका सरल सा मतलब है कि : भगवान एक है और वह किसी भी सांसारिक या ऐन्द्रिय अनुभव से परे है।

 

इस्लाम के अस्तित्व में आने के 1300 वर्ष हो जाने केबावजूद कई हिन्दू संस्कार, परम्परायें और विधियाँ आज भी पश्चिम एशिया में विद्यमान हैं। आईये देखते हैं कि कौन-कौनसी हिन्दू परम्परायें इस्लाम में अभी भी मौजूद हैं – हिन्दुओं की मान्यताहै कि 33 करोड़ देवताओं का एक देवकुल होता है, पश्चिम एशिया में भी इस्लाम के आने से पहले 33 भगवानों की पूजा की जाती थी। चन्द्रमा आधारित कैलेण्डर पश्चिम एशिया में हिन्दू शासनकाल के दौरान ही शुरु किया गया। मुस्लिम कैलेण्डर का माह “सफ़र” हिन्दुओं का “अधिक मास” ही है, मुस्लिम माह “रबी” असल में “रवि” (अर्थातसूर्य का अपभ्रंश है (संस्कृत में “व” प्राकृत में कई जगह पर “ब” होता है। मुस्लिम परम्परा “ग्यारहवीं शरीफ़”, और कुछ नहीं हिन्दू “एकादशी” ही है और दोनों का अर्थ भी समान ही है। इस्लाम की परम्परा “बकरीद”, वैदिक कालीन परम्परा “गो-मेध” और “अश्व-मेध” यज्ञ से ली गई है। संस्कृत में “ईद” का अर्थ है पूजा, इस्लाम में विशेष पूजा के दिन को “ईद” कहा गया है। संस्कृत और हिन्दू राशि चक्र में “मेष” का अर्थ मेमना, भेड़, बकरा होता है, प्राचीन काल में जब सूर्य मेष राशि में प्रवेश करता था तब मांस के सेवन की दावत दी जाती थी। इसी परम्परा को आगे बढ़ाते हुए इस्लाम ने इसे “बकरीद” के रूप में स्वीकार किया है (उल्लेखनीय है कि हिन्दी में भी “बकरी” का अर्थ बकरी ही होता है। जिस प्रकार “ईद” का मतलब हैपूजा, उसी प्रकार “गृह” का मतलब है घर, “ईदगृह = ईदगाह= पूजा का घर = पूजास्थल, इसी प्रकार “नमाज़” शब्द भी नम यज्ञ से मिलकर बना है, “नम” अर्थात झुकना, “यज्ञ” अर्थात पूजा, इसलिये नम यज्ञ = नमज्ञ = नमाज़ (पूजा के लिये झुकना। इस्लाम में नमाज़ दिन में 5 बार पढ़ी जाती है जो कि वैदिक “पंचमहायज्ञ” का ही एक रूप है (दैनिक पाँच पूजा – पंचमहायज्ञ जो कि वेदों में सभी व्यक्तियों के लिये दैनिक अनुष्ठान का एक हिस्सा है। वेदों में वर्णन है कि पूजा से पहले, “शरीरं शुद्धयर्थं पंचगंगा न्यासः” अर्थात पूजा से पहले शरीर के पाँचों अंगों को गंगाजल से धोया जाये, इसी प्रकार इस्लाम में नमाज़ से पहले शरीर के पाँचों भागों को स्वच्छ किया जाता है।

 

इस्लाम में “ईद-उल-फ़ितर” भीमनाया जाता है, जिसका मतलब है “पितरों की ईद” या पितरों की पूजा, अर्थात पूर्वजों का स्मरण करना और उनकी पूजा करना, यह सनातन काल से हिन्दू परम्परा का एक अंग रहा है। हिन्दू लोग “पितर-पक्ष” में अपने पूर्वजों की आत्मा की शान्ति के लिये पूजा-हवन करते हैं उन्हें याद करते हैं यही परम्परा इस्लाम में ईद-उल-फ़ितर (पितरों की पूजा के नाम से जानी जाती है। प्रत्येक मुख्य त्योहार और उत्सव के पहले चन्द्रमा की कलायें देखना, चन्द्रोदय और चन्द्रास्त देखना भी हिन्दू संस्कृति से ही लिया गया है, इस्लाम के आनेसे हजारों साल पहले से हिन्दू संकष्टी और विनायकी चतुर्थी पर चन्द्रमा के उदय के आधार पर ही उपवास तोड़ते हैं। यहाँ तक कि “अरब” शब्द भी संस्कृत की ही उत्पत्ति है, इसका मूल शब्द था “अरबस्तान” (प्राकृत में “ब” संस्कृत में “व” बनता हैअतः “अरवस्तान”। संस्कृत में “अरव” का अर्थ होता है “घोड़ा” अर्थात “घोड़ों का प्रदेश = अरवस्तान” (अरबी घोड़े आज भी विश्वप्रसिद्धहैं अपभ्रंश होते-होते अरवस्तान = अरबस्तान = अरबप्रदेश।

 

चन्द्रमा के बारे में विभिन्न नक्षत्रीय तारामंडलों और ब्रह्माण्ड की रचना के बारे में वैदिक विवरण कुरान में भी भाग 1, अध्याय 2, पैराग्राफ़ 113, 114, 115, 158 और 189 तथा अध्याय 9, पैराग्राफ़ 37 व अध्याय 10 पैराग्राफ़ 4 से 7 में वैसा ही दिया गया है। हिन्दुओं की भांति इस्लाम में भी वर्ष के चार महीने पवित्र माने जाते हैं। इस दौरान भक्तगण बुरे कर्मों से बचते हैं और अपने भगवान का ध्यान करते हैं, यह परम्परा भी हिन्दुओं के “चातुर्मास” से ली गई है। “शबे-बारात” शिवरात्रि का ही एक अपभ्रंश है, जैसा कि सिद्ध करने की कोशिश है कि काबा में एक विशाल शिव मन्दिर था, तत्कालीन लोग शिव की पूजा करते थे और शिवरात्रि मनाते थे, शिव विवाह के इस पर्व को इस्लाम में “शब-ए-बारात” कास्वरूप प्राप्त हुआ।

 

ब्रिटैनिका इनसाइक्लोपीडिया के अनुसार काबा की दीवारों पर कई शिलालेख और स्क्रिप्ट मौजूद हैं, लेकिन किसी को भी उनका अध्ययन करने की अनुमति नहीं दी जाती है, एक अमेरिकन इतिहासकार ने इस सम्बन्ध में पत्र व्यवहारकिया था, लेकिन उसे भी मना कर दिया गया। लेकिन प्रत्यक्ष देखने वालों कामानना है कि उसमें से कुछ शिलालेख संस्कृत, पाली या प्राकृत भाषा में हो सकते हैं। जब तक उनका अध्ययन नहीं किया जायेगा, विस्तार से इस सम्बन्ध में कुछ और बता पाना मुश्किल है।


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