|Posted by dimodi on February 9, 2013 at 4:45 AM||comments (6)|
Being a part of such a great, jest full, celebrative culture, we are fortunate enough that we don’t run out of chances to merry. Every now and then we glance to see what festival is arriving next as per our Hindu calendar. This is when I just got a question in my mind that why sometimes one tithi (day) is smaller/greater than the Gregorian calendar. A small question, A bit of anxiety, and determined research is all what gave birth to this post.
The calendar that we follow today is the Gregorian calendar, which was introduced in 1582. This was after it was found that the calendar in use till then, the Julius version, accounted for 365.25 days in a year, when in effect it was 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds, thus slightly lesser than the assumed value. As a result, the equinox was moving steadily ahead in the year, and this was considered unacceptable.
As you know, in the current system, we have a leap year once every 4 years to compensate for the extra fraction of time taken by our MOTHER Earth to revolve around the sun.Now, as the Gregorian calendar adds 1 day at the end of 4 years, it is not moving in synchronism with the sun because this is like a fixed step size, and does not vary smoothly taking into account the sun's variation.
Comparing the Gregorian with the Hindu Panchang, we see that the Hindu version has a much more scientific relationship. While the former is based on the Solar variation and accounts for the earth's revolution around the sun as 12 months each having 30 days, the latter is based on the moon's revolution around the earth, where each month takes 28 days. To compensate for the loss of days, and extra month, called the Adhik Mas (mas is the word for month), is added every 30 months.
The Hindu counting of years generally concurs with the reign of a prominent king. For instance, the current year is the Vikram Samvat 2069, signifying that King Vikramaditya's reign started as many years ago (in 57 BC). There are many such Samvats known, but the Vikram Samvat is what is the most widely accepted and in use currently. The various months in the Vikram Samvat are listed below along with their approximate Gregorian Calendar counterparts:
Each of these months in the Hindu calendar (with 28 days) is subdivided into 2 cycles of moon waxing and waning. The 1st half is called the Krishna Paksha (dark period), where the moon wanes till Amavasya (new moon), and the Shukla Paksha (bright period), where the moon waxes till Purnima (full moon). This can be understood from the below image:
The Hindu calendar in use is a combination of both solar and lunar inferences. The months are based on the moon, while the seasons are governed by the sun. A prominent example of a solar festival is that January 13-14 is celebrated as Pongal (in Tamil Nadu), Sankranti (north India) and Lohri (Punjab). All of these herald the entry of the sun into the Makar rashi, or the northward movement of the sun. Though the date is supposed to be somewhere between December 20th and 23rd, due to earth's tilt, it has kept sliding over years. Don't be surprised if in your future births, you find that Makar Sankranti is being celebrated in May, but that will take 1000s of years to come.
In fact, in certain temples, it is seen that on Sankranti day, sunlight graces the presiding deity. One of such unique temple is the Sun Temple at Konark. The main pratima (idol) is told by the local people to be floating in the air because of the unique arrangements of the main magnets and other series of magnets. The placement of the temple had been aligned in a way that the first rays of the Sun falling on the coast would pass thru the Nata Mandir and would reflect from the diamond placed at the center of this idol in the Main Sanctum.
Coming back to tithis, the days are calculated based on the actual longitudinal angular difference between the respective positions of the moon and the sun. Thus, it is common to see that the tithis vary in length, some shorter than our regular 24 hours, some extending beyond, and this leads to certain auspicious days being celebrated across 2 days of our Gregorian Calendar.
|Posted by dimodi on October 15, 2012 at 8:20 AM||comments (112)|
As I was going through a blog, I read references to the Golden Ratio (1.618), a figure sacred to designers. The Golden Ratio is also known by the number phi, and is otherwise called the Golden mean, Divine Proportion or the Golden section. This ratio can be described from the figure:
Pic 1: -
As is seen, the ratio of one of the sides to the other is the same as the ratio of the sum of the sides to the former. This Golden Ratio has prime importance in architectural design, as it lends a very aesthetic appearance to the object. The Pyramids in Egypt have their dimensions in a proportion equal to it. Leonardo da Vinci, the famed inventor and artist, has used the Golden ratio is many of his creations, most famously; the Vitruvian man (brought into limelight through the book "The Da Vinci Code"). Even the ratio of Fibonacci numbers (1,1,2,3,5,8,...) is successively approximate to the Golden ratio.
I wanted to find out what relevance the Golden Ratio had to India and Hinduism, and I did find something interesting. Many of you would have come across the Sri Yantra, an object of meditation that finds place in Puja Rooms: -
Pic 2: -
Now, Sri Yantras are formed by 9 interlocking isoceles triangles. 4 of them point upwards and represent the female energy Shakti, while the other 5 point downwards, representing the male energy Shiva. These triangles are not ordinarily composed, but have aspects of the Golden Ratio in them. Just as we can have rectangles drawn to the specifications of the Golden Ratio, triangles too can have their properties.
Triangles have 3 variates: The base length, the slant length and the height. The angle also plays a major role. What is amazing is that the triangle of the Yantra is a proportionate cross-section of the Giza Pyramid, incorporating both special numbers pi (3.142...) and phi (1.618...) ratio. And the base angle of the triangle in the Yantra is seen to be around 51 degrees, the same value that was attributed to the base of the Great Pyramid of Giza.
The standard form of the Sriyantra, with the 9 interwoven triangles, constitutes a total of 43 triangles. Different versions have circles and squares surrounding the triangles, and they are said to form the boundary within which Gods residing in the intersections can stay. The centre of the Yantra has a Bindu (dot), which is the focus of the way you can meditate. You can either start from the inside and move out, or do it vice versa. The former is seen to be a constructive view, while the latter a destructive one.
The Sriyantra might look a fairly simple design, but the construction is a highly complex affair. There are innumerous intersections that take place between the lines of the 9 triangles, and these cuts are supposed to be concurrent. Thus, changing the position of any one shape will require adjustments in all the corresponding figures. If the intersection of the lines does not happen at a particular point, the concurrency is lost, and so is the significance. There is a lot for research going on to find out the true meaning of the Sri Yantra. Some consider it the primordial source of life, and there was a finding about how it was a manifestation of the DNA form, etc. also
Now, there is another separate reference to the Golden Ratio in connection with Kuber, the God of Wealth. It is said that Lord Kuber's treasure, the most prized collection of wealth in the universe, is hidden inside the mystical Mt.Meru. This is guarded by Nagas, or serpents. Now, Mt.Meru is also the name given to a special triangle formed by the ancient mathematician Pingala, and is called MaatraMeru. And this triangle is today called the Pascal's triangle, which some of you might be familiar with:
Pic 3: -
What is of interest (as you will observe in the above figure) is that when you move diagonally upwards starting from the first digit on each line and sum the corresponding digits along each diagonal, you end up getting the numbers of the Fibonacci series, which in-turn are in the Golden ratio. Thus, it can be inferred that our ancient texts give special importance and reverence to this "divine ratio", forming it the basis of how one reaches the treasure of the Gods.
|Posted by dimodi on September 12, 2012 at 7:55 AM||comments (1)|
Courtesy: - An article on India's Ancient Technology:
Surgery Technology: -
The Origin of the Plastic Surgery??
Many people consider Plastic Surgeryas a relatively new specialty, the origin of the plastic surgery had his roots more than 4000 years old in India, back to the Indus River Civilization. The mythico-religious shlokas (hymns) associated with this civilization were compiled in Sanskrit language between 3000 and 1000 B.C. in the form of Vedas, the oldest sacred books of the Hindu religion. This era is referred to as the Vedic period (5000 years B.C) in Indian history during which the four Vedas, namely the Rigveda, the Samaveda, the Yajurveda, and the Atharvaveda were compiled. All the four Vedas are in the form of shlokas(hymns), verses, incantations and rites in Sanskrit language.
‘Sushruta Samhita' is believed to be a part of Atharvaveda.
Plastic Surgery – was first performed in India around 2000 BC and then popularized in the Arab world that actually launched it to Europe. The person behind this groundbreaking medical practice in India was Sushruta. He is credited for performing the first rhinoplasty (nose-job) with a unique understanding of the circulation system.
Cataract surgery - Cataract surgery was also known to him (Indian physician Sushruta) in 6th century BCE. In India, cataract surgery was performed with a special tool called the Jabamukhi Salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision. The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged. Though this method was successful, Susruta cautioned that cataract surgery should only be performed when absolutely necessary. Greek philosophers and scientists traveled to India where these surgeries were performed by physicians. The removal of cataract by surgery was also introduced into China from India.
Stones - The earliest operation for removal of a stone is also given in the Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE). The operation involved exposure and going up through the floor of the bladder.
‘Sushruta Samhita'(Sushruta's compendium), which describes the ancient tradition of surgery in Indian medicine is considered as one of the most brilliant gems in Indian medical literature. This treatise contains detailed descriptions of teachings and practices of the great ancient surgeon 'Sushruta' which hasconsiderable surgical knowledge of relevance even today.
Because of his seminal and numerous contributions to the science and art of surgery he is also known by the title "Father of Surgery." Much of what is known about this inventive surgeon is contained in a series of volumes he authored, which are collectively known as the Sushruta Samhita in which he describes over 300 surgical procedures and 120 surgical instruments and classifies human surgery in 8 categories. He lived, taught and practiced his art on the banks of the Ganges in the area that corresponds to the present day city of Varanasi in North India.
Medicine & Surgery :
An artist's impression of an operation being performed in ancient India. In spite of the absence of anesthesia, complex operations were performed. The practice of surgery has been recorded in India around 800 B.C. This need not come as a surprise because surgery (Shastrakarma) is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda the ancient Indian system of medicine. The oldest treatise dealing with surgery is the Shushruta Samahita (Shushruta's compendium). Shusruta who lived in Kasi was one of the many Indian medical practitioners who included Atraya and Charaka. He was one of the first to study the human anatomy. In the Shusruta, Samahita he has described in detail the study of anatomy with the aid of a dead body. Shusruta's forte was rhinoplasty (Plastic surgery) and ophthalmology (ejection of cataracts). Shushruta has described surgery under eight heads Chedya (excision), Lekhya (scarification),Vedhya (puncturing), Esya (exploration), Ahrya (extraction), Vsraya (evacuation) andSivya (Suturing).
Yoga is a system of exercise for physical and mental nourishment. The origins of yoga are shrouded in antiquity and mystery. Since Vedic times, thousands of years before, the principles and practice of yoga have crystallized. But, it was only around 200 BC that all the fundamentals of yoga were collected by Patanjali in his treatise, named Yogasutra, that is, Yoga-Aphorisms.
In short, Patanjali surmised that through the practice of yoga, the energy latent within the human body may be made live and released, which has a salubrious effect on the body and the mind. Now, in modern times, clinical practices have established that several ailments, including hypertension, clinical depression, amnesia, acidity, can be controlled and managed by yogic practices. The application of yoga in physiotherapy is also gaining recognition.
Sushruta has pointed out that haemorrhage can be arrested by apposition of the cut edges with stitches, application of styptic decoctions, by cauterisation with chemicals or heat. That the progress of surgery and its development is closely associated with the great wars of the past is well known. The vrana or injury, says Sushruta, involves breakdown of body-components and may have one or more of the following seats for occurrence, viz., skin, flesh, blood-vessels, sinews, bones, joints, internal organs of chest and abdomen and vital structures. Classically vrana, the wound, is the ultimate explosion of the underlying pathological structure. It is, in Sushruta's words, the sixth stage of a continuous process, which starts with sotha (inflammation). Sushruta says that in the first stage, the ulcer is unclean and hence called a dusta-vrana. By proper management it becomes a clean wound, a suddha-vrana. Then there is an attempt at healing and is called ruhyamana-vrana and when the ulcer is completely healed, it is a rudha-vrana. Sushruta has advocated the use of wine with incense of cannabis for anesthesia. Although the use of henbane and of Sammohini and Sanjivani are reported at a later period, Sushruta was the pioneer of anaesthesia.
Sushruta describes eight types of surgical procedures: Excision (chedana) is a procedure whereby a part or whole of the limb is cut off from the parent. Incision (bhedana) is made to achieve effective drainage or exposure of underlying structures to let the content out. Scraping (lekhana) or scooping is carried out to remove a growth or flesh of an ulcer, tartar of teeth, etc. the veins, hydrocele and ascitic fluid in the abdomen are drained by puncturing with special instrument (vyadhana). The sinuses and cavities with foreign bodies are probed (esana) for establishing their size, site, number, shape, position, situation, etc. Sravana (blood-letting)is to be carried out in skin diseases, vidradhis, localised swelling, etc. in case of accidental injuries and in intentional incisions, the lips of the wound are apposed and united by stitching (svana.)
To obtain proficiency and acquiring skill and speed in these different types of surgical manipulations, Sushruta had devised various experimental modules for trying each procedure. For example, incision and excision are to be practised on vegetables and leather bags filled with mud of different densities; scraping on hairy skin of animals; puncturing on the vein of dead animals and lotus stalks; probing on moth-eaten wood or bamboo; scarification on wooden planks smeared with beeswax, etc. On the subject of trauma, Sushruta speaks of six varieties of accidental injuries encompassing almost all parts of the body.
Sushruta also gives classification of the bones and their reaction to injuries. varieties of dislocation of joints (sandhimukta) and fractures of the shaft (kanda-bhagna) are given systematically. He classifies and gives the details of the six types of dislocations and twelve varieties of fractures. He gives the principles of fracture treatment, viz., traction, manipulation, appositions and stabilization. Sushruta has described the entire orthopaedic surgery, including some measures of rehabilitation, in his work.
As war was a major cause of injury, the name Salya-tantra for this branch of medical learning is derived from Salya, the arrow of the enemy, which in fights used to be lodged in the body of the soldiers. He emphasizes that removal of foreign bodies is fraught with certain complications if the seat of the Salyabe a marma.
Sushruta also discusses certain surgical conditions of ano-rectal region; he has given all the methods of management of both haemorrhoids and fistulae. Different types of incision to remove the fistulous tract as langalaka, ardhalangalaka, sarvabhadra, candraadha (curved) and kharjurapatraka (serrated) are described for adoption according to the type of fistula.
Sushruta was well aware of the urinary stones, their varieties; the anatomy of urinary bladder along with its relations is well recorded in the chapter on urinary stones. Varieties of stones, their signs and symptoms, the method of extraction and operative complication are given in detail. Apart from the above, surgery of intestinal obstruction (baddha-gudodara), perforated intestines (chidrodara), accidental injuries to abdomen (assaya-bhinna) in which protrusion of omentum occurs are also described along with their management.